Automatic Language Identification Bibliography

(Last Update: 20 September 1999)







This bibliography lists research in Automatic Identification of Spoken Language.

Help filling in the gaps in this bibliography would be greatly appreciated, Please send additional references, or corrections/additions to existing reference listings, to the maintainer of this list, Diamantino Caseiro (dcaseiro AT L2F.inesc-id.pt).


[Andersen 94] O. Andersen, P. Dalsgaard and W. Barry, "On the Use of Data-Driven Clustering Technique for Identification of Poly- and Mono-phonemes for four European Languages", in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 94, Adelaide, Australia, April 1994.
 
 

[Andersen 97] O. Andersen and P. Dalsgaard, "Language-identification based on Cross-Language Acoustic models and Optimised Information Combination", in Proceedings of the 5rd European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech 97), Rhodes, Greece, September 1997.
 
 

[Ardoy 97] C. Corredor Ardoy, J.L. Gauvain, M. Adda-Decker, and L. Lamel. "Language identification with language-independent acoustic models". in Proceedings of the European Conference on Speech Technology,  EuroSpeech, Rhodes, Greece, September 1997
 
 

[Barkat 99] M. Barkat, J. Ohala and F. Pellegrino, "Prosody as a Distinctive Feature for the Discrimination of Arabic Dialects", in Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech 99), Budapest, Hungary, September 1999.
 
 

[Barnard 97] E. Barnard  and Y. Yan, "Toward New Language Adaptation for Language Identification", in Speech Communication 21, p.245-254, Elsevier, 1997.
 
 

[Berkling 94a] K. M. Berkling, T. Arai and E. Barnard, "Analysis of phoneme-based features for language identification", in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 94, Adelaide, Australia, April 1994.
 
 

[Berkling 94b] K. M. Berkling and E. Barnard, "Language Identification of Six Languages Based on a Common Set of Broad Phonemes", in Proceedings of the 1994 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 94), Yokohama, Japan, September 1994.
 
 

[Berkling 95] K. M. Berkling and E. Barnard, "Theoretical Error Prediction for a Language Identification System using Optimal Phoneme Clustering", in Proceedings 4rd European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech 95), Madrid, Spain, September 1995.
 
 

[Berkling 96a] K. M. Berkling, "Automatic Language Identification with Sequences of Language-Independent
Phoneme Clusters" , Ph.D thesis, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science & Technology, October 1996.
 
 

[Berkling 96b] K. M. Berkling and E. Barnard, "Language Identification with Inaccurate String Matching", in Proceedings of the 1996 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 96), Philadelphia, USA, 1996.
 
 

[Berkling 98] K. Berkling, M. Zissman, J. Vonwiller and C. Cleirigh, "Improving Accent Identification Through Knowledge of English Syllable Structure", in Proceedings of the 1998 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 98), Sydney, Australia, December 1998.
 
 

[Berkling 99a] K. Berkling, D. Reynolds and  M. Zissman, "Evaluation of Confidence Measures for Language Identification", in Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech 99), Budapest, Hungary, September 1999.
 
 

[Berkling 99b] K. Berkling, J. Vonwiller and C. Cleirigh, "Scope, Syllable Core and Periphery Evaluation: Automatic Syllabification and Application to Foreign Accent Identification" in Proceedings of the ESCA-NATO Workshop on Multi-Lingual Interoperability in Speech Technology (MIST), Leusden, The Netherlands, September 1999.
 
 

[Bond 98] Z. Bond, D. Fucci, V. Stockmal and D. McColl, "Multi-Dimensional Scaling of Listener Responses to Complex Auditory Stimuli", in Proceedings of the 1998 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 98), Sydney, Australia, December 1998.
 
 

[Braum 98] J. Braum and H. Levkowitz, "Automatic Language Identification with Perceptually Guided Training and Recurrent Neural Networks", in Proceedings of the 1998 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 98), Sydney, Australia, December 1998
 
 

[Carvalho 94] P. Carvalho, P. Lopes, I. Trancoso and L. Oliveira, "E-Mail to Voice-Mail Conversion Using a Portuguese Text-To-Speech System", in Proceedings of the 1994 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 94), Yokohama, Japan, September 1994.
 
 

[Caseiro 98a] D. Caseiro and I. M. Trancoso, "Language Identification using Minimum Linguistic Information", in 10th Portuguese Conference on Pattern Recognition (RECPAD?98), Lisbon, Portugal, March 1998.
 
 

[Caseiro 98b] D. Caseiro and I. M. Trancoso, "Identification of Spoken European Languages", in Proceedings X European Signal Processing Conference (Eusipco-98), Rhodes, Greece, September 1998.
 
 

[Caseiro 98c] D. Caseiro and I. M. Trancoso, "Spoken Language Identification Using the Speechdat Corpus", in Proceedings of the 1998 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 98), Sydney, Australia, December 1998.
 
 

[Cavnar 94] W. Cavnar and J. Trenkle, "N-gram-based text categorization", in 1994 Symposium on Document Analysis and Information Retrieval, Las Vegas, USA, 1994.
 
 

[Cimarusti 82] D. Cimarusti and R. B. Ives, "Development of an automatic identification system of spoken languages: Phase 1", in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 82, Paris, France, May 1982.
 
 

[Cummins 99] F. Cummins, F. Gers and J. Schmidhuber, "Language Identification from Prosody without Explicit Features", in Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech 99), Budapest, Hungary, September 1999.
 
 

[Dalsgaard 96] P. Dalsgaard, O. Andersen, H. Hesselager, B. Petek "Language-Identification using Language-Dependent Phonemes and Language-Independent Speech Units", in Proceedings of the 1996 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 96), Philadelphia,USA, October 1996.
 
 

[Dalsgaard 98] P. Dalsgaard, O. Andersen, and W. Barry "Cross-Language Merged Speech Units and Their Descriptive Phonetic Correlates", in Proceedings of the 1998 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 98), Sydney, Australia, December 1998.
 
 

[Dunning 94] T. Dunning, "Statistical Identification of Language", in Technical report CRL MCCS-94-273, Computing Research Lab, New Mexico State University, March 1994.
 
 

[Foil 86] J. T. Foil, "Language identification using noisy speech", in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 86, Tokyo, Japan 1986.
 
 

[Ganesan 93] R. Ganesan and A. T. Sherman, "Statistical Techniques for Language Recognition: An Introduction and Guide for Cryptanalysts", in Cryptologia XVII:4, 321-366, October 1993.
 
 

[Gauvain 96] J. L. Gauvain and L. Lamel, "Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition: From Laboratory Systems towards Real-World Applications", in The Transactions of the Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers, Vol.J79-D-II N12, December 1996.
 
 

[Giguet 95a] E. Giguet, "Multilingual Sentence Categorisation according to Language", in Proceedings of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics SIGDAT Workshop "From text to tags: Issues in multilingual Language Analysis" , Dublin, Ireland, March 1995.
 
 

[Giguet 95b] E. Giguet, "Categorization according to Language: A step toward combining Linguistic Knowledge and Statistic Learning", in Proceedings of the International Workshop of Parsing Technologies, Prague, Czech Republic, September 1995.
 
 

[Gobbel 96] A. E. Thymé-Gobbel and S. E. Hutchins, "On using prosodic cues in automatic language identification", in Proceedings of the 1996 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 96), Philadelphia, USA, October 1996.
 
 

[Goodman 89] F. J. Goodman, A. F. Martin and R. E. Wohlford, "Improved automatic language identification in noisy speech", in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 89, Glasgow, Scotland, May 1989.
 
 

[Grefenstette 96] G. Grefenstette, "Comparing two language identification schemes", in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on the Statistical Analysis of Textual Data (JADT?95), Rome, Italy, December 1995.
 
 

[Harbeck 99] S. Harbeck and  U. Ohler, "Multigrams for Language Identification", in Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech 99), Budapest, Hungary, September 1999.
 
 

[Hazen 93a] T. J. Hazen, "Automatic Language Identification Using a Segment-Based Approach", SM Thesis, MIT, August 1993.
 
 

[Hazen 93b] T. J. Hazen and V. W. Zue, "Automatic language identification using a segment-based approach", in Proceedings 3rd European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech 93), Berlin, Germany, September 1993.
 
 

[Hazen 94] T. J. Hazen and V. W. Zue, "Recent improvements in an approach to segment-based automatic language identification", in Proceedings of the 1994 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 94), Yokohama, Japan, September 1994.
 
 

[Hazen 97] T. J. Hazen and V. W. Zue, "Segment-Based Automatic Language Identification", Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 101, No. 4, pp. 2323-2331, April 1997.
 
 

[Hieronymous 96] J. Hieronymous and S. Kadambe, "Spoken Language Identification Using Large Vocabulary Speech Recognition", in Proceedings of the 1996 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 96), Philadelphia, USA, 1996.
 
 

[Hombert 99] J. Hombert and  I. Maddieson, "The Use of 'Rare' Segments for Language Identification", in Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech 99), Budapest, Hungary, September 1999.
 
 

[House 77] A. S. House and E. P. Neuberg, "Toward automatic identification of the language of an utterance. I. Preliminary methodological considerations", in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 62(3):708-713, 1977.
 
 

[Hutchins 94] S. E. Hutchins and A. E. Thymé-Gobbel, "Experiments using prosody for language identification", in Proceedings Speech Research Symposium XIV, Baltimore, Maryland, USA, June 1994.
 
 

[Ingle 76] N. Ingle, "A language identification table", in The Incorporated Linguist, 15(4), 1976.
 
 

[Irii 90] H. Irii, K. Itoh and N. Kitawaki, "Multilingual speech database for evaluating quality of digitized speech", in Proceedings of the 1990 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 90), Kobe, Japan, 1990.
 
 

[Itahashi 99] S. Itahashi, T. Kiuchi and M. Yamamoto, "Spoken Language Identification Utilizing Fundamental Frequency and Cepstra", in Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech 99), Budapest, Hungary, September 1999.
 
 

[Ives 86] R. B. Ives, "A minimal rule AI expert system for real-time classification of natural spoken languages", in Proceedings 2nd Annual Artificial Intelligence and Advanced Computer Technology Conference, Long Beach, USA, April-May 1986.
 
 

[Jelinek 92] F. Jelinek, R. L. Mercer and S. Roukos, "Principles of Lexical Language Modeling for Speech Recognition", in Advances in Speech Signal Processing, S. Furui and M. Sandhi (Eds.), Dekker, 1992.
 
 

[Johnson 93] S. Johnson, "Solving the problem of language recognition", in Technical report, School of Computer Studies, University of Leeds, 1993.
 
 

[Kadambe 94] S. Kadambe and J. L. Hieronymous, "Spontaneous Speech Language Identification with a Knowledge of linguistics", in Proceedings of the 1994 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 94), Yokohama, Japan, September 1994.
 
 

[Kwan 95a] H. K. Kwan and K. Hirose, "Recognized phoneme-based n-gram modeling in automatic language identification", in Proceedings 4rt European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech 95), Madrid, Spain, September 1995.
 
 

[Kwan 95b] H. K. Kwan and K. Hirose, "Use of Phonetic Classes in Language Identification",in Proceeding of the IEEE ASR Workshop, Snowbird, Utah, December 1995.
 
 
 

[Kwan 96] H. K. Kwan and K. Hirose, "Unknown Language Rejection in Language Identification System", in Proceedings of the 1996 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 96), Philadelphia, USA, 1996.
 
 

[Kwan 97] H. K. Kwan and K. Hirose, "Use of Recurrent Network for Unknown Language Rejection in Language Identification System", in Proceedings 5th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech 97), Rhodes, Greece, September 1997.
 
 

[Kwasny 92] S. Kwasny, B. Kalman, W. Wu and A. Engebretson, "Identifying Language from Speech: An Example of High-Level, Statistically-Based Feature Extraction", in Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 1992.
 
 

[Lamel 93a] L. F. Lamel and J. L. Gauvain, "Cross-lingual experiments with phone recognition". in Proceedings of the  IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 93, Minneapolis, USA, April 1993.
 
 

[Lamel 93b] L. F. Lamel and J. L. Gauvain, "Language Identification Using Phone-based Acoustic Likelihoods". in Proceedings of the  IEEE ASR Workshop 93, Snowbird, Utah, December 1993.
 
 

[Lamel 94] L. F. Lamel and J. L. Gauvain, "Language Identification Using Phone-based Acoustic Likelihoods", in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 94, Adelaide, Australia, April 1994.
 
 

[Leonard 74] R.G. Leonard and G.R.Doddington "Automatic language identification", Technical report RADC-TR-74-200, Air Force Rome Air Development Center, August 1974
 
 

[Leonard 75] R.G. Leonard and G.R.Doddington "Automatic language identification", Technical report RADC-TR-75-264, Air Force Rome Air Development Center, October 1975.
 
 

[Leonard 78] R.G. Leonard and G.R.Doddington "Automatic language discrimination", Technical report RADC-TR-78-5, Air Force Rome Air Development Center, January 1978.
 
 

[Leonard 80] R.G Leonard. "Language recognition test and evaluation", Technical report RADC-TR-80-83 , Air Force Rome Air Development Center, March 1980.
 
 

[Li 80] K. P. Li and T. J. Edwards, "Statistical models for automatic language identification", in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 80, Denver, April 1980.
 
 

[Li 94] K. P. Li and T. J. Edwards, "Automatic Language Identification Using Syllabic Spectral Features", in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 94, Adelaide, Australia, April 1994.
 
 

[Lincoln 98] M. Lincoln, S. Cox  and S. Ringland, "A Comparison of Two Unsupervised Approaches to Accent Identification", in Proceedings of the 1998 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 98), Sydney, Australia, December 1998.
 
 

[Lloyd-Thomas 98] H. Lloyd-Thomas, E. Parris and J. Wright, "Recurrent Substrings and Data Fusion for Language Recognition", in Proceedings of the 1998 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 98), Sydney, Australia, December 1998.
 
 

[Lund 95] M. Lund and H. Gish, "Two Novel Language Model Estimation Techniques For Statistical Language Identification", in Proceedings 4rt European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology, Madrid, Spain, September 1995.
 
 

[Lund 96] M. Lund, K. Ma and H. Gish, "Statistical Language Identification Based on Untranscribed Training", in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 94, Adelaide, Australia, April 1994.
 
 

[Mendoza 96] S. Mendoza, L. Gillick, Y. Ito, S. Lowe and M. Newman, "Automatic Language Identification using Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition", in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 96, Atlanta, USA, April 1996.
 
 

[Matrouf 98] D. Matrouf, M. Adda-Decker, L. Lamel and J. Gauvain, "Language Identification Incorporating Lexical Information", in Proceedings of the 1998 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 98), Sydney, Australia, December 1998.
 
 

[Matrouf 99] D. Matrouf, M. Adda-Decker, J.L. Gauvain and  L. Lamel, "Comparing Different Model Configurations for Language Identification Using a Phonotactic Approach", in Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech 99), Budapest, Hungary, September 1999.
 
 

[Mistretta 95] W. J. Mistretta, M. Birnbaum, D. P. Morgan and K. Brown, "Phoneme-Based Language Identification Incorporating Segmental Features", in The Fifteenth Annual Speech Research Symposium XV, June 1995.
 
 

[Mori 99] K. Mori, N. Toba, T. Harada, T. Arai, M. Komatsu, M. Aoyagi and Y. Murahara, "Human Language Identification with Reduced Spectral Information", in Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech 99), Budapest, Hungary, September 1999.
 
 

[Muthusamy 92a] Y. K. Muthusamy and R. A. Cole, "Automatic segmentation and identification of ten languages using telephone speech", in Proceedings of the 1992 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 92), Alberta, October 1992.
 
 

[Muthusamy 92b] Y. K. Muthusamy, R. A. Cole and B. T. Oshika "The OGI multi-language telephone speech corpus", in Proceedings of the 1992 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 92), Alberta, October 1992.
 
 

[Muthusamy 93a] Y. K. Muthusamy, "A Segmental Approach to Automatic Language Identification", Ph.D thesis, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science & Technology, July 1993.
 
 

[Muthusamy 93b] Y. K. Muthusamy, K. Berkling, T. Arai, R. Cole, E. Barnard "A Comparison Of Approaches to Automatic Language Identification Using Telephone Speech", in Proceedings 3rd European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech 93), Berlin, Germany, September 1993.
 
 

[Muthusamy 94a] Y. K. Muthusamy, N. Jain and R. A. Cole, "Perceptual Benchmarks for Automatic Language Identification", in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 94, Adelaide, Australia, April 1994.
 
 

[Muthusamy 94b] Y. K. Muthusamy, E. Barnard and R. A. Cole, "Reviewing Automatic Language Identification", IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, October 1994.
 
 

[Nakagawa 92] S. Nakagawa, Y. Ueda and T. Seino, "Speaker-independent, text-independent Language Identification by HMM", in Proceedings of the 1992 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICLSP 92), Alberta, Canada, October 1992.
 
 

[Navrátil 97a] J. Narvrátil and Werner Zühlke, "Double Bigram-Decoding in Phonotactic Language Identification", in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 97, Munique, Germany, April 1997.
 
 

[Navrátil 97b] J. Narvrátil and Werner Zühlke, "Phonetic-Context Mapping in Language Identification", in Proceedings of the 5rd European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech 97), Rhodes, Greece, September 1997.
 
 

[Navrátil 98] J. Narvrátil and Werner Zühlke, "An efficient phonotactic-acoustic system for language identification", in Proceedings of the International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP-98), Seattle, Washington, USA,  May 1998.
 
 

[Parris 97] E. S. Parris, H. L. Thomas, M. J. Carey and J. H. Wright "Bayesian Methods form Language Verification", in Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech 97), Rhodes, Greece, September 1997.
 
 

[Pellegrino 99a] F. Pellegrino, J. Farinas and R. Obrecht, "Comparison of Two Phonetic Approaches to Language Identification", in Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech 99), Budapest, Hungary, September 1999.
 
 

[Pellegrino 99b] F. Pellegrino, J. Farinas and R. Obrecht, "Vowel System Modeling: A Complement to Phonetic Modeling in Language Identification" in Proceedings of the ESCA-NATO Workshop on Multi-Lingual Interoperability in Speech Technology (MIST), Leusden, The Netherlands, September 1999.
 
 

[Preez 98] J. Preez and D. Weber  "Automatic Language Recognition Using High-Order HMMs", in Proceedings of the 1998 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 98), Sydney, Australia, December 1998.
 
 

[Reynolds 98] D. Reynolds, E. Singer, B. Carlson, G. O'Leary, J. MacLaughlin and M. Zissman "Blind Clustering of Speech Utterances Based on Speaker And Language Characteristics", in Proceedings of the 1998 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 98), Sydney, Australia, December 1998.
 
 

[Roth 98] Z. Roth and J. Rosenhouse "A Name Announcement Algorith with Memory Sise and Computational Power Constraints", in Proceedings of the 1998 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 98), Sydney, Australia, December 1998.
 
 

[Savic 91] M. Savic, E. Acosta and S. K. Gupta, "An automatic language identification system", in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 91, Toronto, Canada, May 1991.
 
 

[Schultz 95] T. Schultz, I. Rogina and A. Waibel, "Experiments with LVCSR Based Language Identification", in Proceedings of the Speech Symposium SRS XV, Baltimore, USA, June 1995.
 
 

[Schultz 96] T. Schultz, I. Rogina and A. Waibel, "LVCSR-Based Language Identification", in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 96, Atlanta, USA, April 1996.
 
 

[SpeechDat] SPEECHDAT(M): EU-project LRE-63314. http://www.phonetik.uni-muenchen.de/SpeechDat.html
 
 

[Stockmal 98] V. Stockmal, D. Moates and Z. Bond "Same Talker, Different Language", in Proceedings of the 1998 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 98), Sydney, Australia, December 1998.
 
 

[Sugiyama 91a] M. Sugiyama, "Automatic language recognition using acoustic features", Technical report TR-I-0167, ATR Interpreting Telephony Research Laboratories, 1991.
 
 

[Sugiyama 91b] M. Sugiyama, "Automatic language recognition using acoustic features", in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 91, Toronto, Canada, May 1991.
 
 

[Teixeira 96] C. Teixeira, I. Trancoso and A. Serralheiro, "Accent Identification", in Proceedings of the 1996 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 96), Philadelphia, USA, October 1996.
 
 

[Teixeira 97] C. Teixeira, I. Trancoso and A. Serralheiro, "Recognition of Non-Native Accents", in Proceedings of the 5rd European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech 97), Rhodes, Greece, September 1997.
 
 

[Tsai 99] W. Tsai and W. Chang, "Chinese Dialect Identification Using an Acoustic-Phonotactic Model", in Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech 99), Budapest, Hungary, September 1999.
 
 

[Tucker 94] R. C .F. Tucker, M. J. Carey, E. S. Parris, "Automatic Language Identification Using Sub-Word Models", in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 94, Adelaide, Australia, April 1994.
 
 

[Wu 94] W. Wu, S. C. Kwasny, B. L. Kalman, E. Engerbretson, "Automatic language recognition using acoustic features", in Proceedings of the 5th Midwest Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science Conference, 1994.
 
 

[Wanneroy 99] R. Wanneroy, E. Bilinski, C. Barras, M. Adda-Decker, E. Geoffrois, "Acoustic-Phonetic Modeling of Non-Native Speech for Language Identification" in Proceedings of the ESCA-NATO Workshop on Multi-Lingual Interoperability in Speech Technology (MIST), Leusden, The Netherlands, September 1999.
 
 

[Warnke 98] V. Warnke, E. Nöth, J. Buckow, S. Harbeck and H. Niemann "A Bootstrap Training Approach for Language Model Classifiers", in Proceedings of the 1998 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 98), Sydney, Australia, December 1998.
 
 

[Yan 95a] Y. Yan and E. Barnard, "An Approach to Language Identification with Enhanced Language Model", in Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech 95), Madrid, Spain, September 1995.
 
 

[Yan 95b] Y. Yan, "Development of An Approach to Language Identification based on Language-dependent Phone Recognition", Ph.D thesis, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science & Technology, October 1995.
 
 

[Yan 96] Y. Yan and E. Barnard, "Experiments with Conversational Telephone Speech for Language Identification", in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 96.
 
 

[Yanguas 98] L. Yanguas, G. O'Leary and M. Zissman, "Incorporating Linguistic Knowledge Into Automatic Dialect Identification of Spanish", in Proceedings of the 1998 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing (ICSLP 98), Sydney, Australia, December 1998.
 
 

[Zissman 93] M. A. Zissman, "Automatic Language Identification Using Gaussian Mixture and Hidden Markov Models", in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 93, Vol.2, pp.399-402, Minneapolis, USA, April 1993.
 
 

[Zissman 94] M. A. Zissman and E. Singer, "Automatic Language Identification of Telephone Speech Messages Using Phoneme Recognition and N-Gram Modeling", in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 94, Vol. 1, pp.305-308, Adelaide, Australia, April 1994.
 
 

[Zissman 95a] M. A. Zissman and E. Singer, "Language Identification Using Phoneme Recognition and Phonotactic Language Modeling", in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 95, Vol. 5, pp.3503-3506, May 1995.
 
 

[Zissman 95b] M. A. Zissman, "Automatic Language Identification of Telephone Speech", in Lincoln Laboratory Journal, Vol.8, No. 2, pp. 115-144, Fall 1995.
 
 

[Zissman 95c] M. A. Zissman, "Overview of Current Techniques for Automatic Language Identification of Speech", in Proceedings of the IEEE Automatic Speech Recognition Workshop, pp.60-62, December 1995.
 
 

[Zissman 96a] M. A. Zissman,  "Comparison of Four Approaches to Automatic Language Identification of Telephone Speech", in IEEE Trans. Speech and Audio Proc., SAP-4(1), January 1996.
 
 

[Zissman 96b] M. A. Zissman, T. Gleason, D. Rekart and B. Losiewicz, "Automatic Dialect Identification of Extemporaneous Conversational, Latin American Spanish Speech", in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing 96, Atlanta, USA, April 1996.
 
 

[Zissman 97] M. A. Zissman, "Predicting, Diagnosing and Improving Automatic Language Identification Performance" in Proceedings of the 5rd European Conference on Speech Communication and Technology (Eurospeech 97), Rhodes, Greece, September 1997.
 
 

[Zissman 98] M. A. Zissman, "Automatic Language Identification", to appear in Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering.
 
 

[Zissman 99] M. Zissman and K. Berkling, "Automatic Language Identification" in Proceedings of the ESCA-NATO Workshop on Multi-Lingual Interoperability in Speech Technology (MIST), Leusden, The Netherlands, September 1999.